Selasa, 06 April 2010

adverb clauses

Adverb Clauses
Adverb clauses adalah klausa terikat yang berfungsi sebagai adverb (keterangan) dalam kalimat majemuk. Jadi dapat menggantikan adverb dalam kalimat tunggal.
Adverb clause mempunyai banyak ragam seperti halnya adverb (kata keterangan) yaitu :
a. adverbial clause of time ( anak kalimat pengganti keterangan waktu)
Adverbial clause of time diawali dengan konjungsi after, before, when, as, as soon as, until, while.
Contoh : she used to live in the rural village before she moved to surabaya.
b. adverbial clause of place ( anak kalimat pengganti keterangan tempat )
diawali dengan konjungsi where atau wherever.
Contoh : siska lives where she was born.
c. Adverbial clause of reason (anak kalimat pengganti keterangan sebab-akibat)
Diawali dengan konjungsi because, since, as / that.
Contoh : Since he had nothing to do, he went to the theatre.
d. Adverbial clause of purpose ( anak kalimat pengganti keterangan tujuan )
Diawali dengan konjungsi so, so that, in other that.
Contoh : Endru studied hard so that he would pass admission test.
e. Adverbial clause concession.
diawali dengan konjungsi thought, although, while atau whereas.
Contoh : Although it was raining, they went to the party.
f. Adverbial clause of condition.
Diawali dengan konjungsi if, unless, as, on condition that.
Contoh : We will not be able to answer the questions if we do not read the text.



A. ADVERB CLAUSES
1. When we were in New York, we saw several plays.
2. We saw several plays when we were in New York.
3. PUNCTUATION : When an adverb clause preceds an independent clause, as in (a), a comma is used to separate the clauses. When the adverb clause follows, as in (b), usually no comma is used.
4. Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.
5. He went to bed because he was sleepy.
6. Like when, because introduces an adverb clause. Because he was sleepy is an adverb clause.
7. Incorrect: When we were in New York. We saw several plays.
8. Incorrect: He went to bed. Because he was sleepy.
9. Adverb clauses are dependent clauses. They cannot stand alone as a sentence in written English. They must be connected to an independent clause.
10. Summary list of words used to introduce adverb claused
11. Time : After, before, When, While, as, as soon as, since, until, by the time (that), once, as/so long as, whenever, every time (that), the first time (that), the first time (that), the last time (that), the next time (that).
12. Cause and Efect : Because, now that, since.
13. Contrast: even though, although, though.
14. Direct Contrast: while, whereas.
15. Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, in case, in the event that.


B. USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT
1. Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.
2. He went to bed because he was sleepy.
3. Now that the semester is over, I’m going to rest a few days and then take a trip.
4. Jack lost his job. Now that he’s unemployed, he can’t pay his bills.
5. Now that means “because now.” In ( c ): Now that the semester is over means “because the semester is now over.” Now that is used for present causes of present or present or future situations.
6. Since Monday is a holiday, we don’t have to go to work.
7. Since you’re a good cook and I’m not, you should cook the dinner.
8. When since is used to mean “because,” it expresses a known cause; it means “because it is a fact that” or “given that it is true that.” Cause and effect sentences with since say: “Given the fact that X is true, Y is the result.” In ( e ): “Given the fact that Monday is a holiday, we don’t have to go to work.”
Note: Since has two meanings. One is “because.” It is also used in time clauses: e.g., Since I came here, I have met many people.


C. EXPRESSING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULTY): USING EVEN THOUGH
1. Because the weather was cold, I didn’t go swimming.
2. Even though the weather was cold, I went swimming.
3. Because I wasn’t tired, I didn’t go bed.
4. Even though I wasn’t tired, I went to bed.
5. Because is used to express expected results.
6. Even though is used to express unexpected results.
7. Note: like because, even though introduces an adverb clause.


D. SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND WHEREAS
1. Mary js rich, while john is poor.
2. John is poor, while Mary is rich.
3. Mary is rich, whereas John is poor.
4. Whereas Mary is rich, John is poor.
5. While and whereas are used to show direct contrast: “this” is exactly the opposite of “that.” While and whereas may be used with the idea of either clause with no difference in meaning.
Whereas mostlu occurs in formal written English.
Note: A comma is usually used even if the adverb clause comes second.
COMPARE
6. While I was studying, the phone rang.
7. While is also used in time clauses and means “during the time that,” as in (e).


E. EXPRESSING CONDITIONS IN ADVERB CLAUSES: IF-CLAUSES.
1. If it rains, the streets get wet.
2. If-clauses (also called “adverb clauses of condition”) present possible conditions. The main clause expresses results. In (a): POSSIBLE CONDITION = it rains.
RESULT = The streets get wet.
3. If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella.
4. WORDS THAT INTRODUCE ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION (IF-CLAUSE)
If – Whether or not – even if – in case – in the event that – unless – only if


F. ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING WHETHER OR NOT AND EVEN IF
1. I’m going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold. (OR: whether it is cold or not.)
2. Whether or not expresses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters; the result will be the same. In (a): “if it is cold, I’m going swimming. If it is not cold, I’m going swimming. I don’t care about the temperature. It doesn’t matter.”
3. I have decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold, I’m going to go swimming.
4. Sentence with even if are close in meaning to those with whether or not. Even if gives the idea that a particular condition does not matter. The result will not change.


G. ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN CASE AND IN THE EVENT THAT
1. I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should) need to reach me.
2. In the event that you (should) need to reach me, I’ll be at my uncle’s house.
3. In case and in the event that express the idea that something probably won’t happen, but it might.
In case/in the event that means “if by chance this should happen.”
Notes: In the event that is more formal than in case. The use of should in the adverb clause emphasizes the speaker’s uncertainty that something will happen.


H. ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING UNLESS
1. I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold.
2. I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn’t cold.
3. unless = if….not
In (a): unless it’s cold means “if it isn’t cold.” (a) and (b) have the same meaning.


I. ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING ONLY IF
1. The picnic will be canceled only if it rains.
If it’s windy, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s cold, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s damp and foggy, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s unbearably hot, we’ll go on the picnic.
2. Only if expresses the idea that that there is only one condition that will cause a particular result.
3. Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled.
4. When only if begins a sentences, the subject and verb of the main clause are inverted, as in (b). No commas are used.

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